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Of the leaves that remain many are wholly or in great part undecipherable, and all have offered more or less difficulty to collators. It must have been a transcript made from P^ at a later time than the T-text was transcribed. 648 sqq., 666 sqq., 698 sqq., 712 sqq.), where the torn sides of two leaves in P-*^ left a lacuna at the beginnings and ends of the lines, the scribe of P seems to have found less than the scribe of T (or of the original from which T was copied). One may conjecture, but it is no more than a conjecture, that P^ had been transmitted from France to Germany for the purpose of being copied for a German monastery library and had suffered in the transmission. 1 — 503 \ But the relation of B to D in the first eight plays and for the last twelve is different. come from an original (P^), which was itself a copy of P^^, so that their evidence is of little or no value against the united testimony of B and D.

Though it contained originally all the twenty-one ' Yarronian ' plays of Plautus, the plays declared by Varro to be universally accepted as genuine, many leaves have been lost, including the whole of the Amphitruo^ Asinaria, Aulularia and Curculio, and nearly the whole of the Captivi and Vidularia. Three other MSS., written in Germany, are descended from a common original (P). began with the word habeas in P, but with indignum id habeas in T. It has, like C, 26 lines to the page ; and this number has been assumed for P^^ on the strength partly of this coincidence, partly of other indications. Of our manuscript authorities for the first eight plays two have been already mentioned ; B, containing all the eight, and D, containing the first three and Capt. 192 — 605) has been added by a 15th cent, corrector^ from the ' Itala recensio.' (V) in the University Library, Leyden ( Voss.

(of the 9th or 10th century probably), which belonged to the Benedictine Monastery of S. 790), the second half of the Pseudolus (from about v. An account of the Codex Turnebi and a photographic facsimile of this collation are given in my Codex Turnebi of Plautus, Oxford, 1898 (cf. The number of lines to a page in P itself was apparently 33 (see below). In dealing with the descendants of P it will be convenient to discuss separately MSS. — Upid., with the exclusion of the Bacchides) and MSS. P ended with the words (reproduced in B) PLAVTI TRVCVLENTVS EXPLICIT INCIPIT VXD VL ARIA. 3 divided into two volumes, the second of which contained the last twelve plays. They are both direct copies of one and the same original (P^°), and that original itself a copy of P, but by no means so faithful a copy as B. (C) the Codex Decurtatus, now in the Palatine collection at Heidelberg (shelf-mark Pal Lat. of great value, which contained various lines (e.g. 454) that had been omitted in P^^, and which preserved the genuine reading in numerous cases of corruption in P^^. was however a descendant of the same archetype as P^^, and may indeed have been the actual original from which P^^ was copied'.

Colombe at Sens in Central France, and was used by the French scholar Adrien Turnebe in the sixteenth century. seems to have been destroyed shortly after Turnebe's use of it. 2 Possibly in P (Lindsay, Palatine Text of Plautus, Parker, Oxford, 1896). This second volume, presumably owing to a defective title-page, fell into such neglect that at the Renaissance only the first eight plays were known, and the discovery of a MS. : — (B) the Codex Vetus (containing also the first eight plays ; see below). which belonged originally to some German monastery and in later times to the Library of the Elector Palatine. Its minuscule script of the German type is generally referred to the end of the tenth century. That this number of lines to a page persisted through the other plays is of itself the most natural suppo- sition and receives some confirmation from an old quaternion-mark, barely 1—2 4 INTRODUCTION. 1613), but formerly in the Abbey of Freising near Munich. (D) the Codex Ursinianus, in the Vatican Library (shelf - mark Vat. 3870), written in minuscules of the eleventh century. whose discovery (in some part of Germany) at the Renaissance caused so much enthusiasm among scholars, who now for the first time became acquainted with the last twelve plays of Plautus (Ritschl, Prolegomena, xxxii. If P^^ and P^^ were the first and second half of one MS., it is conceivable that the source of the B^-corrections was the first half of the MS. It is plain that the scribes of B, when beginning the task of copying, had an original which contained only the first eight plays. 9, and on the reverse side of that leaf wrote a title : in hoc volumine continentur comediae plauti numero viii, with a list of the first eight plays {Amph. When the last twelve plays were added and the Querolus (a late imitation of Plautus) prefixed by the same staff of scribes, that title and list were erased, and on the first page of the quaternion which was prefixed with the Querolus a new title was written : In hoc volumine continentur comediae plauti numero xxi, with a full list of the plays beginning with the Querolus (hence 'twenty-one,' not 'twenty'), and with a slight break in the list between the Epidicus and the Bacchides.

But for the latter half of the Miles and nearly the whole of the Mercator (to v. 1385 penulus, — sure indications that the Poenulus in the original of B was written on pages of some 33 lines. The second broadsheet, that is the second and seventh leaves, contained on leaf ii vv. the last twelve plays (with the Querolus) were copied, and the old title with the list of eight plays was replaced by a new title with a full list. no fresh original of equal importance was available, and the various correctors of this part used the actual original from which the copy was made 2. And it shared a large number of corrupt readings with P"", e.g.

Assuming P to have been the immediate original of B, we can shew the number of lines to the page of P to have been 33.

Of the Plautine Didascaliae we have only two examples (Studemund in C ommentatioiies Momm- senianae), those of the Stichus and Pseudolus in A, where the black lines only remain, the red lines having been washed out. and add to his list those of the Codex Turnebi and of the Ley den 12th century MS. 2 That these came from the margin into the text is suggested by the fact that in Amph., Aul., they precede, but in Merc, Mil., follow the Acrostic. The former is the reading of P"^, the latter of A\ Differences in the text would arise from the re-casting of plays by stage-managers at the revival of a play. The whole tenor of recent Plautine study has shewn / that what seemed at first sight to be errors common to A and P^ [K have usually turned out to be genuine readings, and that the safest rule for an editor is to accept any reading supported by both A and P-*^, i unless there is clear possibility of the scribe of A and some scribe of a Palatine archetype, whether of P"^ or P or P^^, &c., having fallen separately into the same mistake.

The Didascaliae of the Bembinus shew the same variety of lines in red and black. 620 is quoted under the letter G for the word gravastellus, under B for ravistellus. Or an archaic phrase or construction might be modernized, e.g. And yet, if we consider how numerous must have been the copies of Plautus in the Empire, especially after the study of the old Republican writers became the fashion, it is scarcely credible that our two MSS., the one apparently Italian, the other probably French, should be so closely related.

Stat, for example, had the long a of Greek l-a-rd TL (Att.

The vowel in these terminations was originally long. But the Romans found it difficult to keep up the long sound of the vowel before a final t^] and Plautus' younger contemporary Ennius treats these final syllables as 'half -long,' capable of being scanned either long {ponebdt, Enn.